During my quest to make my architecture “clean” there was a huge dependency that needed to be inverted Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity. Even though many applications require authentication, we still shouldn’t be depending on any authentication frameworks.

According to Robert C. Martin we shouldn’t depend on a framework because the business rules can change or the frameworks can change. We keep things loosely coupled so that in case we need to swap out an implementation we can do so without affecting our business rules.

At first, my code following typical ASP.NET Core folder structure: Models, Controllers etc. I had the authentication logic in my AuthenticationController.cs, so that’s where I injected UserManager<TUser> and SignInManager<TUser>. Just in case you’re not familiar with Identity Core, those two managers help us handle users and signing them in. The TUser is a class of user, e.g. IdentityUser is the Microsoft User class.

The newly decoupled project layout follows this folder structure:

  1. Core - Core Business details, does not depend on anything but itself
  2. Infrastructure - Implements and depends on core interfaces
  3. API - Public facing layer that depends on Infrastructure and Core

Steps to Decouple

1. Define authentication methods

We need to Register and SignIn a user. I didn’t include a sign out because I will be using JSON Web tokens and they will have a short expiry date. It’s not secure so don’t do this in a real application.

public interface IAuthenticator
    bool Register(User user);
    string SignIn(string userName, string password);

2. Define User Class

Next, we’ll need to define the User object that we’re passing into Register. In my case I only have 3 fields. User name, email, and password.

public class User
    public string UserName { get; set; }
    public string Email { get; set; }
    public string Password { get; set; }

3. Implement IAuthenticator in Infrastructure

In the infrastructure layer, we create an Authenticator to implement the IAuthenticator interface. This is where we include dependencies on Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity as well as all other dependencies we will be using.

  • Use dependency injection for any required objects / services / managers… etc
  • Include helper method to generate JSON Web Token
public class Authenticator : IAuthenticator
    private readonly MyDbContext _context;
    private readonly UserManager<IdentityUser> _userManager;
    private readonly SignInManager<IdentityUser> _signInManager;

    public Authenticator(
        MyDbContext context,
        UserManager<IdentityUser> userManager,
        SignInManager<IdentityUser> signInManager)
        _context = context;
        _userManager = userManager;
        _signInManager = signInManager;

    private string GenerateJwt(string userName, IdentityUser user)
        var claims = new List<Claim>
            new Claim(JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Sub, userName),
            new Claim(JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Jti, Guid.NewGuid().ToString()),
            new Claim(ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier, user.Id)

        var key = new SymmetricSecurityKey(

        var creds = new SigningCredentials(
            key, SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256);

        var expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1);

        var token = new JwtSecurityToken(
            expires: expires,
            signingCredentials: creds
        return new JwtSecurityTokenHandler().WriteToken(token);

*key, expiry date, and JwtIssuer should be included in an application config file

  • Implement Register()
  • Implement SignIn()
public IdentityResult Register(User user)
    IdentityUser newUser = new IdentityUser {
        UserName = user.userName,
        Email = user.email };
    return _userManager.CreateAsync(newUser, user.password).Result;

public string SignIn(string userName, string password)
    var result = _signInManager.PasswordSignInAsync(
        userName, password, false, false);
    if (result.Succeeded)
        var user = _userManager.Users
            .SingleOrDefault(u => u.userName == userName);
        return GenerateJwt(userName, user);
        return "result.Succeeded == false";

4. Use the Authenticator in our API Controller

With the implementation complete we can pass in our Authenticator instance with dependency injection into the controller.

public class AuthenticationController : ControllerBase
    private readonly Authenticator _authenticator;

    public AuthenticationController(Authenticator authenticator)
        _authenticator = authenticator;

    public ActionResult Register([FromBody] User user)
        return Ok();

    public ActionResult<string> Login([FromBody] User user)
        return _authenticator.SignIn(user.userName, user.password)

This code refactoring was inspired by “Clean Architecture” by Robert C. Martin. I’m still pretty new at software design and programming so feel free to offer suggestions and point out any errors you find.